The Gwiae Pavilion
The pavilion and shine were built to commemorate Gwiae(龜厓) Jo Geuk-seong(曺克承1803-1877), a Confucian scholar in the late Joseon era who served as a Sagan in Saganwon (Office of Censors), Jipwi in Saheonbu(Office of Inspector General), Dojung in Donryeongbu and Chamui in Gongjo (Department of Public works). They were positioned right next to the birthplace of Jo Geuk-seong, which was built more than 200 years ago.
Initially, this site stood a small building where Gwiae taught his students.
It seems that it was built in 1915 or 1916, judging from the signboard of Gwiae written by Kim Yeo-rak and his grandson Sehwan(世煥 1861~1942) at Qingming in 1916, which is positioned at the upper beam of Maru.
The shrine was built in the same year as Gwiae pavilion, and the size at this time was 2 rooms.
After that, when Gwiae was enshrined in Bulcheonwi(an honor for scholars of high achievements), it was extended to the current 3 rooms in 1978.
The record of repairment of the building of February 15, 1978 was located at the bottom of the Jongdori(ridge purlin) of the shrine.
Gwiae Pavilion was built in the northeast direction under Umok (牛牧山), a small hill on the left side of Gwiae Traditional House, and overlooks Mt. Bohyeon in Ansan, and Mt. Hwaak, which Gwiae praised as one of the 10 views of Korea.
There is a square pond in front of the pavilion, and a round island was created in the middle to harmonize yin and yang.
Also, a hexagonal pavilion was placed on the island, which collapsed in 1959 due to Typhoon Saraho and was later restored in 2009 with a wooden bridge built for an entrance.
It is said that there used to be a stone turtle of 1m in length and 50-60cm in height facing the pond in front of Gwiae Pavilion, but it was stolen one day around 1990.
On August 15, 2010, the 4th-generation grandsons of Gwiae, Junho and Philho, restored the stone turtle.
After that, a turtle-shaped stone pond of 120㎠ in size was made in the yard near Numaru, and lotus flowers were planted.
The pond is open on three sides without a fence, unlike the general method of Byeolseo Garden in Yeongnam, where the fences around it enclose the pond.
This opening of the pond shows the construction method seen in a Honam garden.
Gwiae Pavilion has a basic composition of two Ondol rooms, one Maru room, one Ondol room at the top of the foundation of long-stone style, with a half-room placed in the front and back to install a back Maru and Gyeja-gak rail and a closet and a Toenmaru placed at the side by putting in half-room under the roof.
The Numaru in the front of the Ondol room is protruded with the Gyeja-gak railing surrounded to enhance the beauty of the pavilion.
This Numaru was named Suwollu(水月樓: a moon reflected on the pond), and the Toenmaru in front of the room was called Monghuiheon(夢喜軒: pleasure in a dream).
Suwollu had four separable doors in all three outer spaces, but all of them were now gone.
All of the external pillars are in circular-cylinder shape, and the internal pillars are square. Unusually, there are Changbang between pillars decorated with Hwaban for the upper part of the side Toenmaru.
This is because, unlike the general method of extending the inner space by removing the closet from the wall, it puts the cabinet inside the outlying column. Also, there are outer opening Saesal doors installed on the sides of the two Ondol room to allow access to the outside, which can be interpreted in terms of practicality of architecture built in the late Joseon Dynasty.
The one-room-sized maru room with a Womulmaru floor(a floor structure of a traditional Korean building that put together square wooden plates without using nails) has fourth-folding lift-opening doors at the front and double sliding Woolgumi door on the side wall.
The Daecheong between two Ondol rooms was enclosed with fourth-folding lift-opening doors with octagonal Bulbalgi decoration.
On the front and side of the Ondol room, both double-sided opening Saesal doors were installed, and sliding doors were attached to the inside.
The Ikkong style was applied on the top of the pillar with a grider head and salmi, showing the construction trend of the 1900s.
However, it also bears the decorative aspect of the 19th century, with lotus flowers decorated on the edge of Cheomja, Boaji, and Hwaban.
The main building has a 5-ridge roof with a queen post and additional collar beam at the top of the round main purlin, and end purlin on top of it with a trapezoidal plate queen post placed on it, which is very simple construction compared to the outer decoration.
Numaru has a 3-ridge roof. The current management state of the building is very good, and the owner and their relatives have a strong attachment to the building.
The shrine has a separate space on the right side of Gwiae Pavilion, enclosed with a wall. A column was erected by laying the foundation stone on a high pedestal finished with stonework. On the inside, the Maru was raised to a height of about 0.6 meters instead of the Gyoui(交椅) on the floor to put tablets of the five people to enshrine them.
On all three front parts, double-opening Sesal doors with wooden plates at the bottom were installed, with the top of the pillars decorated with a Choik without Cheomja.
Lotus flowers are blooming on the salmi with phoenix heads sculptured on the grider heads, but the salmis on the sides were cut directly with no decoration. It has a simple construction with a 3-ridge roof, and windshields are attached to the side of the roof.